President Vladimir Putin on September 10 signed a decree taking direct charge of a committee that oversees Russia's defense sector.
Putin, addressing a meeting in Moscow on weapons modernization plans, said Russia has no intention to launch a new arms race, but will respond to all security challenges.
He accused NATO of using rhetoric over the conflict in Ukraine to "resuscitate itself."
Putin said Russia will focus on developing new strategic nuclear weapons, aerospace defenses, and high-precision conventional weapons.
Moscow is trying to reduce reliance on Western equipment following sanctions over the Ukraine crisis.
Putin said potential threats to Russia's security must be thoroughly analyzed, and an "adequate response" given to each of them.
The Russian president also said a draft of Russia's new military doctrine should be drawn up by December.